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Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response

References and further reading


Black et al (2008), Maternal and child undernutrition 1. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health, series, 17 January.

CARE (2008),Coping Strategies Index: CSI Field Methods Manual.

Committee on World Food Security (2004),Voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security. Rome.

Food and Nutrition Implications of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings
Tony Castleman, Eleonore Seumo-Fosso, and Bruce Cogill, FANTA, technical notes, technical note No 7, Revised May 2004 

Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) for Measurement of Household Food Access: Indicator Guide
VERSION 2, FANTA, Anne Swindale Paula Bilinsky
September 2006

Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for Measurement of Food Access: Indicator Guide
Jennifer Coates Anne Swindale Paula Bilinsky
August 2007

IFE Core Group (2007), Operational Guidance on Infant and Young Child Feeding in

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) (2004),Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction (includes School Feeding in Emergencies). Geneva.

International Labour Office (ILO) (1973),Minimum Age Convention No.

LEGS (2009), Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS). Practical Action Publishing, UK.

Pejic, J (2001), The Right to Food in Situations of Armed Conflict: The Legal Framework. International Review of the Red Cross, vol 83, no 844 p1097. Geneva.

SMART (Standardised Monitoring and Assessments of Relief and Transition) Guidelines: SMART methodology version.

The Right to Adequate Food (Article 11: 12/05/99. E/C 12/1999/5, CESCR General Comment 12. United National Economic and Social Council (1999).

UNHCR/World Food Programme (WFP)/University College London/IASC Nutrition Cluster (2006),NutVal 2006 version 2.2.

WFP (2006),Food Distribution Guidelines. Rome.

WHO (2009), Child Growth Standards and the identification of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children.

WHO (2007),Growth reference for school-aged children and

WHO (1981), The International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. The full code and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions:

Further reading

Initial assessment

IASC (2009),Multi-sectoral Initial Rapid Assessment (IRA) Tool. Global Health, Nutrition and WASH Clusters.

Food security assessment

CARE (2002), Household Livelihood Security Assessments: A Toolkit for Practitioners,

Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA)-2 (2009),Alternative Sampling Designs for Emergency Settings: A Guide for Survey Planning, Data Collection and Analysis.Washington DC.

FAO/WFP (2009), Crop and Food Security Assessment Missions (CFSAM) Guidelines. Rome

Save the Children (2008), The Household Economy Approach: A guide for programme planners and policy-makers.London.

WFP (2009), Emergency Food Security Assessment Handbook (EFSA) – second edition. Rome.

WFP (2009),Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) Guidelines. Rome.

Seed security assessment

Longley, C et al (2002), Do Farmers Need Relief Seed? A Methodology for Assessing Seed Systems.Disasters,26, 343–355.

Sperling, L (2008), When disaster strikes: a guide to assessing seed system security. International Center for Tropical Agriculture. Cali, Colombia.

Livelihood assessment

Jaspers, S and Shoham, J (2002), A Critical Review of Approaches to Assessing and Monitoring Livelihoods in Situations of Chronic Conflict and Political Instability.ODI.

IASC (2009), Matrix on Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Ensuring a Coordinated, Multi-Sectoral Fuel Strategy in Humanitarian Settings. Version 1.1. Task Force on Safe Access to Firewood and Alternative Energy in Humanitarian Settings.


CARE (2008),Cash, Local Purchase, and/or Imported Food Aid?: Market Information and Food Insecurity Response Analysis.

Mike, A (2010),Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA) toolkit. Practical action, Oxfam GB.

Food consumption

Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (2006),Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS).

WFP (2008), Food Consumption Analysis: Calculation and Use of the Food Consumption Score in Food Security Analysis. Technical Guidance Sheet.Rome.

Participatory methodologies

ActionAid (2004),Participatory Vulnerability Analysis. London.

CARE (2009), Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis handbook.

IFRC (2007), How to do a Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA), a step-by-step guide for Red Cross and Red Crescent Staff and Volunteers.Geneva.

Tearfund (2009), Climate change and Environmental Degradation Risk and Adaptation assessment CEDRA.

Nutrition and food security information systems

Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET):

Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping Systems (FIVIMS)

Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (2008), Technical Manual. Version 1.1.

Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture, FAO:

Shoham, J, Watson, F and Dolan, C, The use of nutrition indicators in surveillance systems, Technical paper 2.ODI. London.

Anthropometric assessment

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/WFP (2005),A Manual: Measuring and Interpreting Malnutrition and Mortality. Rome.

Collins, S, Duffield, A and Myatt, M (2000),Adults: Assessment of Nutritional Status in Emergency-Affected Populations. Geneva.

UN ACC Sub Committee on Nutrition (2001), Assessment of Adult Undernutrition in Emergencies. Report of an SCN working group on emergencies special meeting in SCN News, 22, pp49–51. Geneva.

Save the Children UK (2004), Emergency nutrition assessment, and guidance for field workers.London

Young, H and Jaspars, S (2006), The meaning and measurement of acute malnutrition in emergencies. A primer for decision makers. London.

Micronutrient assessment

Gorstein,J et al (2007), Indicators and methods for cross sectional surveys of vitamin and mineral status of populations.

Seal, A. and Prudhon C (2007), Assessing micronutrient deficiencies in emergencies: Current practice and future directions. Geneva

IYCF assessment

CARE (2010), Infant and young child feeding practices. Collecting and Using Data: A Step-by-Step

Infant and young child feeding

IFE Core Group (2009), Protecting infants in emergencies, Information for the media.

IFE Core Group and collaborators (2009), IFE Module 1: Orientation package on

IFE Core Group and collaborators (2007), Module 2 on Infant Feeding in Emergencies for health and nutrition workers in emergency situations.

UNICEF/WHO (2003), Global Strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva.

WHO (2004), Guiding Principles for feeding infants and young children during emergencies. Geneva.

UNHCR (2009), Guidance on Infant feeding and HIV in the Context of Refugees and Displaced Populations.

USAID/AED/FANTA/University of California DAVIS/International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)/UNICEF/WHO (2007), Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Washington DC.

WHO (2010), HIV and infant feeding. Principles and recommendationsfor infant feeding inthe context of HIVand a summary of evidence. Geneva.

Food security interventions


Barrett, C andMaxwell, D (2005), Food Aid After Fifty Years: Recasting Its Role. London.

IASC (2005),Guidelines for Gender-based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings – Focusing on Prevention of and response to Sexual Violence in Emergencies, Chapters 1–4, Action Sheet 6.1 Food Security and Nutrition.

Maxwell, D et al (2008), Emergency food security interventions. ODI, Good Practice Review #10. Relief and Rehabilitation Network, ODI. London.

UNHCR/UNICEF/WFP/WHO (2002), Food and Nutrition Needs in Emergencies. Geneva.

Targeting and food distribution

Jaspars, S and Young, H (1995), General Food Distribution in Emergencies: from Nutritional Needs to Political Priorities. Good Practice Review 3. Relief and Rehabilitation Network, ODI. London.

WFP (2009),School Feeding Quality Standards.Rome.

WFP (2008),Food Assistance in the context of HIV: Ration Design Guide. Rome.
WFP (2006),Targeting in Emergencies. Rome.

UNHCR (2003),UNHCR Handbook for Registration. Geneva.

Supply chain management and food quality and safety

CARE, Food Resource Management handbook.

Logistics Cluster (2010), Logistics Operational Guide. WFP. Rome.

United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (2010), Catalogue and Standard Operating

WFP (2010), Food Quality Control:

WFP (2003), Food Storage Manual. Natural Resources Institute/WFP.Chatham, UK and Rome.

World Vision International. World Vision Food Resource Manual. Second edition.

World Vision International. Food Monitors Manual.

Cash and vouchers interventions

Action contre la faim (2007), Implementing Cash-Based Interventions. A guide for aid workers. Paris.

Adams, L (2007), Learnings from cash responses to the tsunami: Final report, HPG background paper.

Cash Learning Partnership (2010),Delivering Money: Cash Transfer Mechanisms in Emergencies.Save the Children UK/Oxfam GB/British Red Cross, with support from ECHO. London.

Creti, P and Jaspars, S (2006), Cash Transfer Programming in emergencies, Oxfam GB. London.

Harvey, P (2005),Cash and Vouchers in Emergencies, HPG background paper. ODI.London.

Seed interventions

Catholic Relief Services(CRS) (2002), Seed Vouchers and Fairs: A Manual for Seed-Based Agricultural Recovery in Africa.CRS, incollaboration with ODI and theInternational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.

Sperling, L and Remington, T, with Haugen JM (2006), Seed Aid for Seed Security: Advice for Practitioners, Practice Briefs 1-10. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture/CRS. Rome.

General emergency nutrition manuals

IASC (2008), A toolkit for addressing nutrition in emergency situations.

IASC Nutrition Cluster’s Capacity Development Working Group (2006), Harmonised Training Package (HTP).

Prudhon, C (2002), Assessment and Treatment of Malnutrition in Emergency Situations. Paris.

UNHCR/WFP (2009), Guidelines for Selective Feeding the Management of Malnutrition in Emergencies.

UNHCR/UNICEF/WFP/WHO (2002), Food and Nutrition Needs in Emergencies. Geneva.

WFP (2001), Food and Nutrition Handbook. Rome.

WHO (2000), The Management of Nutrition in Major Emergencies. Geneva.

Vulnerable people

FAO/WHO (2002), Living Well with HIV and AIDS. A Manual on Nutritional Care and Support for People Living with HIV and AIDS.

HelpAge International (2001), Addressing the Nutritional Needs of Older People in Emergency Situations in Africa: Ideas for Action. Nairobi.

Winstock, A (1994), The Practical Management of Eating and Drinking Difficulties in Children. Winslow Press. Bicester, UK.

IASC (2006), Women, Girls, Boys and Men: Different Needs – Equal Opportunities.

FANTA/WFP (2007), Food Assistance Programming in the Context of HIV.

Food and Nutrition Implications of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings (2004)
Castleman, Seumo-Fosso, Cogill

HelpAge/UNHCR (2007),Older people in disasters and humanitarian crisis.

Management of acute malnutrition

ENN/CIHD/ACF (2010), MAMI Report. Technical Review: Current evidence, policies, practices & programme outcomes.

WHO (1999), Management of Severe Malnutrition: A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers. Geneva.

WHO/WFP/UNSCN/UNICEF (2007), Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition. A Joint Statement by the WHO, WFP, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and UNICEF.

FANTA-2 (2008), Training guide for Community based management of acute malnutrition.

VALID International (2006), Community Based Therapeutic Care (CTC): A field Manual.

ENN, IFE Core Group and collaborators (2009), Integration of IYCF support into CMAM.

Navarro-Colorado, C, Mason, F and Shoham, J (2008), Measuring the effectiveness of SFP in emergencies.

Navarro-Colorado, C and Shoham, J (in progress), Supplementary feeding Minimum reporting package.

Micronutrient deficiencies

UNICEF/UNU/WHO (2001), Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva.

WHO (1997), Vitamin A Supplements: A Guide to Their Use in the Treatment and Prevention of Vitamin A Deficiency and Xeropthalmia. Second Edition. Geneva.

WHO (1999), Scurvy and Its Prevention and Control in Major Emergencies. Geneva.

WHO (2000), Pellagra and Its Prevention and Control in Major Emergencies. Geneva.

Seal, A and Prudhon, C (2007), Assessing micronutrient deficiencies in emergencies: Current practice and future directions.

WHO/UNICEF (2007), Guiding principles for the use of multiple vitamin and mineral preparations in emergencies.

WHO (1999),Thiamine Deficiency And Its Prevention And Control In Major Emergencies. Geneva.